PhD dissertations

Gommsen, N.J. (2021). Citizen science communikation. Department for the Study of Culture. University of Southern Denmark. In press.

Grambye, V.H. (2020). Antikvaren som samler i det tidlig moderne museumslandskab. Department of History, University of Southern Denmark. In Danish. English abstract: Grambye-abstract

Jensen, S.K. (2019). From generalist to specialist: The professionalization of the Danish museum occupation, 1958-2018. Department of Communication, University of Copenhagen. Jensen-abstract

Jessen, T.S. (2021). Fortid i og for nutid: Levendegørelser som formidlings- og oplevelsesform gennem 100 år. Department of Communication and Arts, Roskilde University. Thesis in Danish. English abstract: jessen-PhD-thesis-abstract

Krishnasamy, R. (2021). Exploration systems: Using experience technologies in automated exhibition sites. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press. In press.

Littrup, S.L. (2019) Museet som hybridt medieret oplevelsesrum. Department of Communication and Arts: Roskilde University. In Danish. English abstract: Littrup-abstract

Madsen, K.M. (2019). Explorative museum experiences: A collaborative experience design process for explorative museum exhibitions. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press. Madsen-abstract

Myrczik, E. (2019). Digital museum mediation in Denmark: A critical exploration of the development, practice, and perceived outcomes. Department of Communication: University of Copenhagen. Myrczik-abstract

Nicolaisen, L.B. (2020). Astrophysics: designing for inclusion. Department of Science Education: University of Copenhagen. Nicolaisen-abstract

Rathjen, K. (2020). Det folkelige museum: Mellem oplysning og oplevelse. Department of History, University of Southern Denmark. In Danish. English abstract: Rathjen-abstract

Særkjær, C. (2021). Eksperiment, dialog, kunst: En eksperimentel undersøgelse af ny museumsformidling. Department of Communication and Culture: Aarhus University. In Danish. English abstract: særkjær-thesis-summary

Yates, M.F. (2020). Ældre kunst og nye brugere: Nye metoder til formidling af Skovgaard Museets samling. Department of Communication and Culture: Aarhus University. In Danish. English abstract: Yates-abstract

Books and special journal issues

Achiam, M., Haldrup, M. & Drotner, K. (Eds.). (2021). Experimental museology: Institutions, representations, users. London: Routledge. Open access.
Worldwide, museums strive to redefine their societal relevance. This edited volume is underpinned by the key argument that museums can catalyse this redefinition by theory-based experimentation. Moving beyond best practice and critical analysis its 12 cutting-edge chapters scrutinise concrete cases of innovative endeavours to redefine museological practice within museums focusing on the formative redesign of institutions, representations and user relations. Volume authors are all scholars experienced in practice-based museum design and they represent a range of theoretical and empirical traditions, thus providing both range of orientation and depth of insight to the field.

Brenna, B., Christensen, H.D. & Hamran, O. (Eds.). (2018). Museums as cultures of copies: The crafting of artefacts and authenticity. London: Routledge.
Museums emerged as storehouses for authentic and real objects. And museums have been presented as places of rest and contemplation, as places for withdrawal from the strains of modern (city) life in the Western world. Yet, on closer inspection what catches the eye are all the ‘inauthentic’ objects in museums, the excess of copies. This volume explores in conceptual and empirical terms how museums handle dilemmas involved in copy production and consumption including the inclusion of new technologies for reproduction and documentation.

Christensen, H.D., & Haldrup M. (Eds.). (2019). Museum communication between enlightenment and experience. Nordisk museologi, 1. Special issue.

Drotner, K., Dziekan, V., Parry, R. & Schrøder, K.C. (red.). (2018). The Routledge handbook of museums, media and communication. London: Routledge. Open access.
Museums today find themselves within a mediatised society where everyday life is conducted in a data-full and technology-rich context. In fact, museums are themselves mediatised: they present a uniquely media-centred environment, in which communicative media is a constitutive property of their organisation and of the visitor experience. Including contributions from experts around the world, this original and innovative Handbook shares a nuanced and precise understanding of media, media concepts and media terminology, rehearsing new locations for writing on museum media and giving voice to new subject alignments. As a whole, the volume breaks new ground by reframing mediated museum communication as a resource for an inclusive understanding of current museum developments.

Kann-Rasmussen, N., Christensen, H.D., Johnston, J., & Huvila, I. (red.). (2019). Collaboration and convergence of libraries, archives and museums. Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift, 2, u.s. Special issue.
With this thematic issue we want to explore what currently appears as a new wave of convergence and collaboration between LAM institutions. The articles show that two themes stand out as particularly important in this regard. The first theme regards digitalization and the development of technology, which are reflected in cultural policies and in the way the institutions react to these policies. The second theme regards the shift in focus away from the collections and towards user participation and alternative dissemination practices. As a whole, this issue shows us that Nordic LAM institutions show more similarities than (ever) before as they adapt to a new digital climate, new cultural policy requirements and adjust to new expectations from the surrounding world.

Edited volume chapters

Achiam, M. (2020). Reflections on empowering youth in science museums. In H. McLaughlin & J. Diamond (Eds.), Science museums in transition: Unheard voices (pp. 44-48). London: Routledge.
Recent decades have seen a profound shift in the way museums perceive themselves and how they, in turn, are perceived by their surrounding communities and societies. New technologies, new economic realities, and rapid demographic and generational changes have set the stage for this shift, and many museums have responded quickly and decisively by re-appropriating their traditional and self-referential functions to reflect more community-oriented perspectives. However, nineteenth and twentieth century museum logics may still linger in places, leaving members of the non-dominant yet fast-growing communities on the outside. One attempt to shift the balance between community and curators is exemplified by the Irresistible Project, that engaged students in deconstructing the science of scientists and reconstructing it in the form of exhibits intended to engage visitors in critical dialogue about science.

Baggesen, R.H. (2019). Mobile media, mobility and mobilisation in the current museum field. In K. Drotner, V. Dziekan, R. Parry & K.C. Schrøder (eds.), The Routledge handbook of museums, media and communication (pp. 115-27). London: Routledge. Open access.
Introducing the concept of a 'mobile museology' to describe how museums are currently set in motion by a confluence of cultural, technological and museological developments, this chapter traces the connections between mobile media and notions of mobility and mobilisation in the museum field. As illustrated by current examples in the chapter, mobile phones have thus provided an opportunity for both augmenting and transcending the museum space, blurring former boundaries between institutions and their environments. At the same time, technological advances and digitial culture developments have also required and inspired museums to become organisationally mobile, and to mobilise collections, audiences and institutions in order to fulfill museum missions. In this perspective, mobile media are thus seen as both catalysts and instruments for current museum developments.

Brenna, B., Christensen, H.D. & Hamran, O. (2018). Introduction. In B. Brenna, O. Hamran & H.D. Christensen (eds.), Museums as cultures of copies: The crafting of artefacts and authenticity (pp. 1-8). London: Routledge.
With contributions from Europe and Canada, the book interrogates the meaning of copies and presents copying as a fully integrated part of museum work. Including chapters on ethnographic mannequins, digitalized photos, death masks, museum documentation and mechanical models, contributors consider how copying as a cultural form changes according to time and place and how new forms of copying and copy technologies challenge and expand museum work today. Arguing that copying is at the basis of museum practice and that new technologies and practices have been taken up and developed in museums since their inception, the book presents both heritage work and copies in a new light.

Christensen, H.D. (2018). Looking for originals in a museum of copies? The ambivalence of the Thorvaldsens Museum. In B. Brenna, H.D. Christensen & O. Hamran (eds.), Museums as cultures of copies: The crafting of artefacts and authenticity (pp. 117-30). London: Routledge.

Drotner, K., Dziekan, V., Schrøder, K.C., & Parry, R. (2018). Media, mediatization and museums: A new ensemble. In K. Drotner, V. Dziekan, R. Parry & K.C. Schrøder (eds.) The Routledge handbook of museums, media and communication (pp. 1-12). London: Routledge. Open access.
Museums have always communicated with the world around them through various means, such as signage, leaflets, photos and materials for learning. Over the years, museum communication has been marked by the uptake of media technologies that were new at the time, such as film and audio guides. In recent years, the options of mediated communication have been catalysed by a range of media technologies that are born digital (computers, mobiles) or can be turned into digital formats (e.g. print, film, photos). The Internet has widened these options through rapid and nearly global reach, thus turning museums’ mediated communication into both a physical and a virtual affair. Museums are in many ways unique spaces because they can bring the whole media ensemble into a particular place and space that exists within a set of complex mediated communication environments.

Drotner, K., Dziekan, V., Schrøder, K.C., & Parry, R. (2018). Foundations. In K. Drotner, V. Dziekan, R. Parry & K.C. Schrøder (eds.), The Routledge handbook of museums, media and communication (pp. 13-16). London: Routledge. Open access.
Today, any potential visitor to a museum soon realises that engaging with museums means interacting with a wide range of communication media: from online information about visiting hours, special exhibitions and transport facilities, on to invitations to follow the museum on social network sites (“social media”). Actual museum visitors also meet a variety of media in the form of printed leaflets and catalogues, information screens and possibly mobile options for online interaction along the way. Many museums are also keenly aware of the importance to communicate a clear public profile in a competitive cultural environment where many vie for the attention of visitors, politicians and funders. Behind the scenes, mediated modes of communication equally orchestrate museum professionals’ daily work, be it content management systems for collections, archival infrastructures or printed newsletters to the staff.

Drotner, K., Dziekan, V., Schrøder, K.C., & Parry, R. (2018). Environments. In K. Drotner, V. Dziekan, R. Parry & K.C. Schrøder (eds.), The Routledge handbook of museums, media and communication (pp. 97-99). London: Routledge. Open access.
The chapters in this Section analyze different relationships between museums and their environments in ways that, to a greater or lesser extent, transcend and cross-fertilize administrative and critical lenses for observing museum communication. The research-based findings and arguments in the five chapters may serve, on the one hand, as insights which can be operationalized into practical initiatives by museum professionals in order to improve their community, audience or visitor relations; on the other hand they throw critical light on the roles that museums play in their wider societal environments, as resources for democratic participation, complicit collaborators with global IT-corporations, catalysts of creative expression, or as learning environments for cultural citizenship.

Drotner, K., Dziekan, V., Schrøder, K.C., & Parry, R. (2018). Practices. In K. Drotner, V. Dziekan, R. Parry & K.C. Schrøder (eds.), The Routledge handbook of museums, media and communication (pp. 173-175). London: Routledge. Open access.
This section hones in on how museums apply media as part of their daily communication practices and as catalysts of change. The Section chapters rest on a potential research paradox between an unquestioned focus on media in museum practices versus an equally unquestioned marginalization of media as museum practices. The authors demonstrate a range of academic and professional vantage points in tackling this paradox, thus allowing readers to consider media practices in museums from multiple angles.

Drotner, K., Dziekan, V., Schrøder, K.C., & Parry, R. (2018). Directions. In K. Drotner, V. Dziekan, R. Parry & K.C. Schrøder (eds.), The Routledge handbook of museums, media and communication (pp. 257-60). London: Routledge. Open access.
The section considers the datafication of culture, the overlapping ubiquity of media technologies, and the proliferation of digital platforms—from virtual reality and augmented reality, and from smart data to social media. The attention is primarily to the future trajectories of scholarship, to emerging themes of research, and to new evolutions in practice. The Section chapters point principally to new questions, alternative approaches and likely challenges ahead.

Drotner, K. Haldrup, M., & Achiam, M. (2021). Implications and perspectives for experimental museology. In M. Achiam, M. Haldrup & K. Drotner (eds.). Experimental museology: Institutions, representations, users (pp. 199-205). London: Routledge. Open access.
The concluding chapter hones in on three pertinent implications for an experimental museology that catalyses more holistic approaches to museum theory and practice: ethics, diversity and democracy.

Drotner, K. (2018). Meeting change with creativity. Interview in I. Eleá & L. Mikos (eds.), Young and creative: Digital technologies empowering children in everyday life (pp. 221-5). Gothenburg: Nordicom.
The interview focuses on digital creativities as resources of media and information literacy, documenting the key importance played by semi-formal and informal learning sites.

Drotner, K. (2020). Joint creativity for democratic transformations in museums. In G. Black (eds.), Museums and the challenge of change: Old institutions in a new world (pp. 204-10). London: Routledge.
The key argument of the chapter is that the cultural sector and civil society are key catalysts of creativity that foster democratic change. The chapter addresses how the two spheres cross-pollinate, and the chapter exemplifies how museums may foster creative processes for democratic transformations in other sectors of society. Such examples are key, it is argued, because they underpin how meaning-making visions can be turned into practice, and because they demonstrate cultural resources as fundamental to democracy, not as appendices to social and political processes.

Haldrup, M., Achiam, M., & Drotner, K. (2021). Introduction: For an experimental museology. In M. Achiam, M. Haldrup, & K. Drotner (eds.). Experimental museology: Institutions, representations, users (pp. 1-12). London: Routledge. Open access.
The introduction defines experimental museology as contingent processes that museums can adopt when handling ongoing socio-cultural dilemmas. Specifically, experimental museology can foster change through experimentation within wider design ecologies that stretch beyond established museum boundaries.

Haldrup, M., & Koefoed, L.M. (2020). Orientalism. In A. Kobayashi (eds.), International encyclopedia of human geography (pp. 19-24). Elsevier. 2nd ed.
In recent years, social and cultural geography has drawn inspiration from postcolonial studies in order to analyze and interpret the workings of colonial domination. The work of the literary theorist Edward Said showed how the discourse of Orientalism dominated (and continues to dominate) academic and artistic work on the countries of the Middle East. The concept of the Orient extends to broader general parlance; within the concept of “Oriental Studies,” Central, South, and East Asia are also included. It legitimizes and enables the continual colonial domination of “the West” over “the Rest.” Partly inspired by the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926–84), Said coined the notion of Orientalism to refer to Eurocentric (and later US) ideas, thoughts, cultural depictions, military reports, and claims to superiority over the Middle East. Orientalism is a style of thought that produced the image of the Orient as a threatening, inferior, and underdeveloped “Other” as compared to the Western powers. Said emphasizes that the Orient is not a free subject of action and thought, but rather, a created and imaginary geographical entity constructed in the context of colonialism and Western dominance. This imaginative geography works by dramatizing geographical distance and difference between what is close and what is far away. Said's work has influenced scholarship in a variety of fields and disciplines, including geography, despite critiques of his conceptualization of Orientalism. Today, critical approaches toward cultural essentialism in geopolitics remain a central topic for both academic discourse and political activism.

Haldrup, M. (2020). Water as interface in viking heritage communication. In C. Palmer & H. Andrews (eds.), Tourism and embodiment (pp. 140-59). Abingdon: Routledge.
There are numerous signs and markers at museums and heritage sites instructing bodies to ‘stop, look and listen’ (Ingold 2000:243). Screens to be watched, gadgets and touch sensitive switches to be activated, films to be gazed at in silent or interactive spectacles to participate in are but a few examples of the many artefacts and devices museums work through in order to involve and engage the bodies of visitors. Yet, this dense embodied choreography, this profound corporeality (Massumi 2014:56) of the museum/heritage encounter, has been strangely absent from current museology and heritage studies (Candlin 2004), reflecting a more profound ‘blind spot’ regarding bodies in social theory (Crossley 2006). While tourism studies, following Veijola and Jokinen’s (1994) article on the absence of bodies in tourist studies, have seen an upsurge in interest in theories and approaches relating to embodiment, these have to a large extent been reserved for particular ways of sensing and performing tourism. Hence, there is still a need to develop more systematically a repertoire of vocabularies and methods directed at the various ‘affective materialities’ (Anderson and Wylie 2009) at play in tourism.

Haldrup, M. (2020). Queering as speculative practice. In A.M. Lindelof (eds.), Performance design: 15 års alfabet (pp. 105-9). Roskilde: Roskilde University.

Hjalager, A.-M., Smed, S.G., & Jensen, J.F. (2020). E-tools for tourism innovation management: A typology. In Z. Xiang, M. Fuchs, U. Gretzel & W. Höpken (eds.), Handbook of e-tourism. Springer.
It is often claimed that small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises have a limited innovation capacity. However, framed by innovation policies, public and private organizations assist with various kinds of innovation management. In recent years, a multitude of e-tools have been launched to effectively support businesses in their innovation processes. This chapter undertakes a qualitative analysis of 21 of these e-tools. More precisely, the chapter examines the digital software measures through two lenses. First, a  categorization of the approaches shows that e-tools can support innovation in a variety of ways, with idea management tools, brainstorming/idea generation tools, idea sharing tools, networking tools, collaboration/ crowdsourcing tools, open innovation tools, idea ranking and assessment tools, trendspotting/trend scouting tools, gamification tools, analysis tools and dashboards, etc. Thus, e-tools seem to accommodate tourism SMEs’ diverse development and creativity challenges well. Second, the chapter scrutinizes the phases of innovation and finds that the majority of the e-tools tend to support the planning, scoping, definition, and exploration phase, while later steps in the innovation processes are not as well covered by e-tools, including concept generation and early prototype iteration, evaluation, and refinement. The chapter concludes that further developments may refine and expand digital tools and that tourism SMEs may be receptive if the e-tools properly address operational conditions, such as financial constraints, seasonal fluctuations, and, most importantly, adaptability to collaborative usage settings.

Knudsen, L.V., & Olesen, A.R. (2019). Complexities of collaborating: Understanding and managing differences in collaborative design of museum communication. In K. Drotner, V. Dziekan, R. Parry, & K.C. Schrøder (eds.), The Routledge handbook of museums, media and communication (pp. 205-18). London: Routledge. Open access.

Nicolaisen, L.B., Achiam, M., & Ibsen, T. (2021). Transforming astrophysics in a planetarium: ‘We are part of the Universe, the Universe is part of us’. In M. Achiam, M. Haldrup, & K. Drotner (eds.), Experimental Museology: Institutions, representations, users (pp. 167-183). London: Routledge. Open access.
When they create exhibitions, science museums are not just putting science on display; they are purposefully deconstructing scientific knowledge, values and practices and reconstructing it to create environments that appeal to their visitors. Here, we examine this de/reconstruction process in the development of the exhibition Made in Space in the Planetarium in Copenhagen, an exhibition specifically designed to be inclusive to visitors across the gender spectrum. We trace the adaptive transformations undergone by astrophysics knowledge, values and practices as it progresses through a series of workshops involving astrophysicists, designers, and education researchers to finally become embodied in the exhibition. We use this data to identify the explicit and implicit notions about visitors and gender held by these stakeholders, and we discuss how these notions can be understood in the context of more overarching societal, institutional, disciplinary, and pedagogical discourses.

Olesen, A.R., & Knudsen, L.V. (2018). Design methods for museum media innovation: Enhancing museum user negotiations by discursive and material explorations of controversies. In D. Stuedahl & V. Vestergaard (eds.), Media innovations and design in cultural institutions (pp. 33-51). Gothenburg: Nordicom.
Museums increasingly pursue digital innovation by collaborating closely with creative industries, cultural institutions, researchers, digital designers, museum users and the like. In this chapter, we scrutinize two collaborative design processes in terms of how discursive and material design methods enhanced negotiations regarding the museum user. These enhanced negotiations informed the design of museum media, namely a digital platform for collecting user-generated content and digital exhibition apps. Against this background, we come to the conclusion that collaborative design of museum media benefits greatly from design methods that explicitly explore controversies and their socio-material negotiations.

Vistisen, P., Selvadurai, V. & Krishnasamy, R.K. (2018). Applied gamification in self-guided exhibitions: Lessons learned from theory and praxis. In O.E. Hansen, T. Jensen, & C. Rosenstand (eds.), Gamescope: The potential for gamification in digital and analogue places. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press.
This chapter contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two empirical case examples, concerning a mobile augmented reality design and an Instagram service. Analyzing the design process behind these cases, we identify some of the challenges arising from applying gamification in practice, and whether these insights verify, extents or contradicts current examples of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed to activate and engage more visitors and motivate them to participate in the activities as well as downloading the app and preparing for the activities on their own volition prior to their visit. By looking closer at what might have triggered the motivation with the visitors, a connection could be made to gamification and serious games, pertaining to the applied game design arena, in that there is something about extrinsic motivational properties at play, that persuaded the visitors to use the digital experience layers.

Vistisen, P., Selvadurai, V., & Jensen, J.F. (2020). Balancing enlightenment and experience in interactive exhibition design. In A. Brooks & E. I. Brooks (eds.), Interactivity, game creation, design, learning, and innovation. 8th EAI International Conference, ArtsIT 2019 and 4th EAI International Conference.
This chapter presents insights from a collaborative design research project, in which a zoological aqua park in Denmark integrated multiple gamified digital installations in their new exhibition design. We document how these designs are in a tension between allowing game-based interactions, and the didactic communication about facts in the exhibition. We study the implemented solutions based on qualitative interviews with visitors, and with quantitative data from the backend game analytics of the installations. From triangulating these data sets we show, how attempts to deliver purely fact-based information through didactic design elements fail to succeed in engaging the visitors, while stealth learning sparks enlightenment about the subject matter. Our results suggest that this is true both in cases in which users fully understand and play through the intended interactions, as well as when more negotiated interpretations of the digital installations are performed. From this our contribution are guiding principles for the balance, between experience and enlightenment in gamified exhibition designs.

Journal articles

Achiam, M., Nicolaisen, L.B., & Ibsen, T. (2019). Planetariums between experience and enlightenment. Nordisk museologi, 19(1), 11-24.
Planetariums are committed to promoting public knowledge about astronomy and space. At the same time, they have a legacy of offering spectacular and immersive experiences in their dome programmes. These outcomes do not always sit comfortably together; in fact, international research shows that many planetarium staff members consider experience and enlightenment to be mutually exclusive. In this study, we develop the argument that enlightenment and experience do not necessarily contradict each other in the planetarium context. We survey staff members from Scandinavian planetariums on their perspectives of planetarium dome programmes, and show that here, enlightenment and experience are considered to be complementary in successful planetarium dome dissemination. We discuss these findings and offer our reflections on their implications for the practice of planetariums.

Achiam, M. (2019). Transforming capacity for inclusion in science centers and museums. Informal Learning Review, 154(1), 14-16.
It is tantalizingly easy to think that science exhibitions and galleries, with their hands-on exhibits, vivid imagery, and intriguing objects, extend the same open invitation to everyone. But in recent years, it has become apparent that science museums and science centers do not afford discovery and engagement on the same terms to everyone. In fact, science centers and museums may actively (although inadvertently) exclude many members of the public from visiting–some even before they reach the entrance.

Christensen, H.D., & Haldrup, M. (2019). Museum communication between enlightenment and experience. Nordisk museologi, 1, 5-10.
In museum studies, the relation between enlightenment and experience has often been seen as an antagonistic discourse. In a pell- mell, debates over museums as temples of knowledge and public memory institutions versus Disneyfication, commercialization and adaptation to the experience economy might indicate this dichotomous relation. Especially, under the influence of the hype emanating from the latter concept, museum practices have been conceived of as a tension between a historical commitment to the values of “enlightenment” and more contemporary demands for producing entertaining “experiences” (Skot- Hansen 2008). This special theme of Nordic Museology has had its outset in discussions connected with the large Danish research and development project, Our museum (2016–2020). In this projecIt a central objective is to examine the antagonistic discourse in question here: how well-documented is this antithetical relationship between enlightenment and experience when discourses are critically examined? Or, rather, how many discourses contradict and even falsify this antagonism? christensen-haldrup-intro

Christensen, H.D. (2016). A never-ending story: The gendered art museum revisited. Museum Management and Curatorship, 4, 349-368.
For years the unequal acquisition of artworks by female artists compared to male artists has been debated within the art museum world. This article argues that the quest for parity might overshadow theoretical implications. Firstly, the handful of museums which were investigated in a Danish report from 2005 is revisited; this report documented that 80 % of the artworks acquired in the period 1983-2003 were produced by male artists. The revisit shows that the plain conclusions haven't changed considerably. Next, the article examines the question of staff at Danish art museums. This indicates a majority of female agents. Last, the article argues that a declared parity in acquisition policy simplifies questions on gender and diversity. Instead, lack of parity should be considered a point of attention, which might have reasonable explanations, but, nevertheless, can be addressed by both a critique of ”art value” and a focus on gender mainstreaming.

Christensen, H.D. (2016). The art of copying: Five strategies for transforming originals in the art museum. Culture Unbound, 1, 85-107.
This article discusses copies within the field of art museums by way of mapping strategies for copy practices. This mapping leans heavily towards parts of the writings of Jacques Derrida (1930–2004). Against the backdrop of this theoretical premise, the article distinguishes five main strategies. Firstly, the copies which often are considered to be typical museum copies, characterize the strategy for the disseminating relation between original and copy, that is, reproductions, magnets, etc. This strategy implies how copy practices are closely integrated into museum practices in general. Secondly, the supplementing relation between original and copy will be introduced. This strategy frames, for example, artists’ citations of other works and forgeries. Both show that copy practices often lead to new originals, in principle, ad infinitum. Thirdly, this leads to the strategy for the displacing relation between original and copy which encompasses, for example, artistic reworkings of other artists’ originals and conservatorial restorations. This approach partly excludes the copy and partly displaces the original, while still, unavoidably, referring to the latter. In general, this strategy signifies the latent instability of the original. Fourthly, the strategy for the informational relation between original and copy will be discussed as it has a vital function in terms of talking about museum originals and copies. This is the strategy which grants the original artifacts their status as museum objects. An informational copy is just as unique as an original object of art, and at the same time, it defines the original and is itself defined by this opposition. Lastly, the strategy for the imagined relation between original and copy follows. This strategy is dependent upon several of the previous approaches, and, in addition, handles signs that exist without explicit originals, as the strategy covers copies referring to originals which have disappeared, been destroyed, not seen yet, etc.; that is, this strategy produces images of originals not least by way of the disseminating relation between original and copy from the first strategy.

Drotner, K., & Jensen, J.F. (forthcoming). Evaluating cultural citizenship: A model for museums.
Museums increasingly make use of evaluations, yet there is a scarcity of robust models focusing on audiences’ resources. Based on an overview of museum evalution and evaluation models, the article presents a new model for quantitative evaluation of cultural citizenship. The validity of the model is documented through the provision of result from a study conducted as part of a large-scale Danish R&D progamme.

Drotner, K. (2017). Our museum: Studying museum communication for citizen engagement. The Journal of Nordic museology, 2, 148-55.
Our Museum was initiated in 2016. It is a five-year Danish national research and development programme comprising seven university departments at five universities and eight museum partners. The project aims to facilitate new forms of citizen engagement and inclusion by developing and studying how museums communicate with audiences in innovative ways. In this text the background, aims, hypothesis and organization are presented. drotner-2017-nordic-museology

Drotner, K. (2019). Media audience practices beyond living memory: Modeling theoretical and methodological issues. Participations: Journal of Audience and Reception Studies, 16(2), 327-49.
While research on media audience history is fast advancing, its temporal boundaries are mainly limited to what can be culled from people still alive. This article pushes these boundaries back in time by asking, how we may capture media audience practices of the distant past, that is beyond living memory, and what are the methodological challenges of such endeavours. It is argued that an extension of the empirical perspective on past media audience practices requires a widening of theoretical frameworks and a deepening of methodological approaches. So, the article provides a conceptual overview of key theoretical traditions that may inform studies on distant media audience practices, notably theories of historical reception, cultural history and histories of visual anthropology. Then a three-dimensional methodology model is proposed that is structured according to analytical perspectives and divided according to dimensions of the analytical process. The relevance of the model is documented by drawing on existing studies and key methodological challenges are discussed.

Drotner, K. (2020). Children's digital content creation: Towards a processual understanding of media production among Danish children. Journal of Children and Media, 14(2), 221-36.
This article explores how we may study children’s digital content creation as creative processes of production. Based on a case study of 6-16-year-olds’ filmmaking in an out-of-school context, the analysis identifies three interlaced categories marking the production processes: Social interaction, semiotic negotiation and practice-based learning. Results demonstrate that joint creation of new film narratives unleashes students’ playful exploration, trains multimodal skills, and catalyzes modes of reflexivity that are germane to complex problem-solving. In conclusion, it is argued that digital content creation needs added pedagogical attention as a means of advancing children’s democratic rights of expression as societal resources, not as individual requisites.

Drotner, K. (2020). Minimizing knowledge skepticism: Resourcing students through media and information literacy. European Review, 1-11. Online first, 29.5.
The article addresses the gap between students’ information access and their knowledge formation and it proposes media and information literacy (MIL) as an important means of minimising that gap. It is argued that MIL is feasible because it trains communication skills for validation, critique and knowledge production rather than a mere focus on information access, search and retrieval. It is discussed how education can widen its scope to include semi-formal learning sites as found in the GLAM sector, since these sites are key training-grounds of MIL.

Drotner, K. (2020). Media studies the Nordic way: Formations and futures. Nordic Journal of Media Studies, 2, 13-22.
Based on an overview of Anglo-American stocktaking of media and communication studies, the article situates Nordic media studies as a third route staked out between academic binaries of administrative and critical approaches. The key argument is this: Nordic media studies displays distinctive features of development that are shaped by Nordic welfarist ideals from the 1970s and 1980s rather than by international trends in the academy. It is argued that these ideals are worth holding on to if the field of media studies is to thrive with quality and relevance in a globalised, connected, and deeply datafied platform society.

Drotner, K. (forthcoming). Researching and resourcing cultural citizenship: Results from the Our Museum programme. Nordisk museologi.
Based on an overview of recent large-scale collaborative museum initiatives in the Nordic countries, the articles presents key results from the Our Museum programme, a major Danish R&D programme (2016-2020) whose main objective was to help foster cultural citizenship through museum audiences’ interactions. The results are discussed in relation to key dilemmas facing many museums online to remain relevant to wider and diverse segments of society while being dependent on neoliberal funding schemes and commodified data streams.

Evans, H. J., Nicolaisen, L. B., Tougaard, S., & Achiam, M. (2020). Museums beyond neutrality. Nordisk museologi, 29, 19-25.
More and more, museums are facing demands of accountability. The days are over when museums could legitimise their place in society simply by referring to the traditional functions of collecting, researching and disseminating. Today, urges for museums to clarify their contributions to broader society come from many different sources: governments, who may allocate funding based on an institution’s potential to generate financial returns or public health benefits;historians and indigenous experts, who critique the colonialist structures that enable museums to retain property rights to objects looted from former colonies; or scholars of cultural history, who demand that the white, western, male gaze prevalent in many exhibitions be replaced with a more diverse range of perspectives.

Haldrup, M., Samson, K., & McGowan, M.K. (2020). Toxic climates: Earth, people, movement, media. Media Performance Philosophy, 5, 252-9. (Video-paper).
Planet Earth is toxic. Its atmosphere unbreathable. Its environments deadly intoxicated by the dehumanizing forces of xenophobia, environmental degradation and violence. As its peoples are increasingly on the move to make a worthy living exclusion, borders and conflict is a norm rather than an exception. And – as toxic substances dissipate and spread through media and circulating representations they cloud the sight of the human beings in front of us. In the face of the intoxicating and dehumanizing forces at play we need remedies for sobering up rather than intoxication. Remedies for living with contamination and hybridity rather than altering these states.Partly inspired by Levinas and his ethics of the “nakedness of a face, the absolute defenseless face, without covering, clothing or mask” and partly by Anna Tsings’ more recent call for “contamination” as a catalyst from which future ”world-making projects, mutual projects and new directions – may emerge”, we propose a radical humanizing intervention in - and beyond - institutions. A contamination of academic institutions and media with testimony from people living the change. A contamination of thought with action. A contamination of activism with thinking. In a cooperation between academic performance researchers and media activist collective Other Story we explore media activism as ways of expressing and enacting citizenships. Conceiving of thinking as a practice that “interrupts all ordering activities and is interrupted by them” (Arendt) we think through and with embodied others and their material lives rather than about them. Hence, the presentation will address interventions and evidence of staging a “radical softness” in the meeting with people who live through current planetary change and explore potentials for emerging shared sensibilities affecting our own embodied citizenships in the encounter with others in these toxic climates.

Jensen, J.F. (2021). Museumverse: A new typology for user positioning in museum dissemination. Nordisk Museologi, 31(1), 56-73.
This article presents a new typology for user positioning in museum dissemination. First, I develop a framework for the typology by identifying relevant, central dimensions and variables within the area of user positioning in museum dissemination. Next, the individual types within the typology is studied and representative cases for each type described. Finally, the conclusion points to different uses and consequences of the typology.

Kann-Rasmussen, N., Christensen, H.D., Johnston, J. & Huvila, I. (2019). Introduction: Collaboration and convergence of libraries, archives and museums. Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidskrift, 2. Online first, 12.12.

Laursen, D., Kristiansen, E., & Drotner, K. (2016). The museum foyer as a transformative space. The Journal of Nordic Museology, 1, 69-88.
This article explores how we may study physical museum foyers as multilayered spaces of communication. Based on a critical examination of ways in which the museum foyer is conceptualised in the research literature, we define the foyer as a transformative space of communication for visitors which has four transformative functions, and we ask the following question: How do people entering the museum practise these transformative functions so as to become visitors – and become non-visitors again on leaving? Answers are provided through an empirical analysis of the foyer as a transformative communicative space. Based on qualitative studies of four divergent Danish museums and a science centre, we demonstrate that the foyer’s communicative space supports transformative functions consisting of multiple phases before and after the visit itself, namely arrival–orientation–service–preparation (before the visit) and preparation– service–evaluation–departure (after the visit). We discuss the implications of these results for the museum and heritage sectors and argue for more granular understandings of the visitor perspective.

Madsen, K.M. & Vistisen, P. (2019). Designing for emergent interactions: Strategies for encouraging emergent user behaviour and serendipitous research findings. The Design Journal, 22(1), 1807–20.
In this article, we discuss emergent interactions as a design strategy in the context of cultural museum exhibitions and how we can use these strategies to be more open to serendipitous findings in research. We propose that emergent narratives can be transferred to the design of interactive exhibitions, and thereby removing the constraints and open use situations for more personalized, and potentially structure-breaking user experiences. Whereas much research in accidental discoveries in design focus on discovery in the design process, we propose the same accidental discoveries might be transferred as design strategies aimed at the end-users themselves making emergent interactions that can inspire serendipitous discoveries in research and design. As such, we ask the research question if we can leverage serendipitous findings from the design process to create the potential for emergent interactions for the user?

Madsen, K.M., Skov, M., & Vistisen, P. (2020). How to design for exploration through emergent narratives. Digital Creativity, 1-11.
This article presents emergent narratives from theory on game design as a model for designing cultural heritage exhibitions and discusses how criteria of emergent narratives can support exploratory user behaviour. We propose that emergent narratives can be transferred to the design of interactive digital exhibitions, thereby removing constraints and allow for more personalized and potentially structure-breaking user experiences. Whereas exhibition design often either focuses on form or content, we propose that by designing for exploration through criteria of emergent narratives, a balance can be found between content and form that encourages explorative behaviour in the exhibition. This adds to the discourse of design principles for using principles from closed digital environments, such as games, in open physical spaces of exhibitions. The article answers the research question of how theory of emergent narratives can be used to design for exploration.

Madsen, K.M., & Jensen, J.F. (2021). Learning through exploration at museum exhibitions. Museum Management and Curatorship, 36(2), 154-71.
The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of exploration in museum exhibitions as a means of balancing enlightenment and experience. Hypothesizing that exploration can be one approach to dissolving the enlightenment-experience conflict by embedding both aspects within the concept of exploration, users reach enlightenment through explorative experiences. Exploration is discussed, theoretically and empirically, as a structure for creating a space for exploration, providing users with multiple levels and types of interaction and experience potential. Throughout the article, we argue that a simple thematic, user-mindset, agency, storification and narrative closure are key criteria for an exhibition to further the potential for exploration by creating multiple perspectives, interaction potential and depth on a specific area of interest, thus maintaining the users’ curiosity and focus. Empirically, we explore how explorative exhibitions affect users’ museum experiences through a user study at two exhibitions designed for exploration: Anguish & Fire and The Amazing Eel.

Myrczik, E. (2018). Cultivating digital mediation: The implementation of publicly funded digital museum initiatives in Denmark. International Journal of Cultural Policy24(7), 239-254.
The aim of this article is to review and reflect on the factors defining the expected benefits that have influenced the implementation of digital mediation initiatives in publicly funded museums over the course of the last 20 years. The expectations directed towards digital museum mediation are established by taking a closer look at Danish cultural policy implementation and socio-technological development. Examples from a review of cultural policy documents, funding applications and reports, supplemented by articles from a museum practice journal illustrate trends and developments in digital museum mediation. This article identifies a development of digital museum mediation in three phases, from providing access to digitized cultural heritage to more user-oriented communication strategies such as personalization and participation. The analysis shows that, in a cultural political context, the adoption of digital mediation in institutions is part of a higher strategy where technological development acts as a catalyst for innovation in the cultural sector.

Nicolaisen, L.B., & Achiam, M. (2020). The implied visitor in a planetarium exhibition. Museum Management and Curatorship, 35, 143-159.
Planetariums disseminate astrophysics, space technology and planetary science to the public. These subject areas are often perceived as being ‘hard science’ and thus symbolically associated with the masculine. To what extent is this gendering also present within planetarium exhibitions? We address this question with a three-fold conceptual framework combining theories on the implied visitor, gender, and science exhibitions, respectively. We analyse to what extent gendered structures are embodied within the exhibition Space Mission. We find that the dominant discourse within the exhibition is one that presents science as technical, fact-based, and individualist, organised through competitive and game-like activities. We argue that these characteristics are associated with masculinity, thereby reproducing the discourse of astrophysics as being within the masculine domain and potentially excluding a large diversity of visitors. We offer some hypotheses about the origin of this gendering and discuss its implications.

Rathjen, K. (2020). Det grundtvigianske museumssag mellem følelse og fornuft. Slagmark, 80, 87-105.
This article investigates the notion that museums are caught between two oppsites when it comes to defining the institutions Raison d’être: either you entertain, or you enlighten. Using Barbara Rosenwein’s thoughts on emotional communities, this museological dichotomy between emotion and intellect is challanged by a certain ‘Grundtvigian position’ that was inspired by the philosophy of pastor poet N.F.S. Grundtvig. At the turning point of the 19th century, this position resulted in numerus museums that made the radical statement: the dichotomy is false. A museum should speak to emotions and the intellect. As opposted to the rationalistic, archeological approach that the National Museum represented, the grundtvigians saw themselves as mediators of a living history that needed to be told under the pressure of modern techniques and customs.

Rathjen, K. (2020). Museet i tidens tegn. Nordisk museologi, 29(2), 4-18.
Museum activism seems to be on everyone’s lips these days. The notion of activism enters a museological scholarly and political debate that had previously been defined by questions concerning the relationship between enlightenment and entertainment, authenticity, representation, and globalization. Museum activism challenges the traditional temporal character of the museum by demanding a presentistic – part futuristic – understanding of time. The basic assumption of this article is that the traditional cultural history museums confronts the visitor with his own temporality. The fundamental problem is that museums traditionally asks questions of the temporal character of mankind, whereas activism delivers answers

Selvadurai, V., Vistisen, P., & Rosenstand, C.A.F. (2019). Fruitful gaps in digital literacy: Interpreting gaps in digital literacy among stakeholders in collaborative design research projects as an evolving innovative capacity. The Design Journal22(sup1), 2045–59.

Selvadurai, V. & Rosenstand, C.A.F. (2017). A heuristic for improving transmedia exhibition experience. The Design Journal20(sup1), S3669–S3682.

Vistisen, P., Selvadurai, V., & Jensen, J.F. (2020). Balancing enlightenment and experience in interactive exhibition design. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (LNICTS).
This paper presents insights from a collaborative design research project, in which a zoological aqua park in Denmark integrated multiple gamified digital installations in their new exhibition design. We document how these designs are in a tension between allowing game-based interactions, and the didactic communication about facts in the exhibition. We study the implemented solutions based on qualitative interviews with visitors, and with quantitative data from the backend game analytics of the installations. From triangulating these data sets we show, how attempts to deliver purely fact-based information through didactic design elements fail to succeed in engaging the visitors, while stealth learning sparks enlightenment about the subject matter. Our results suggest that this is true both in cases in which users fully understand and play through the intended interactions, as well as when more negotiated interpretations of the digital installations are performed. From this our contribution are guiding principles for the balance, between experience and enlightenment in gamified exhibition designs.

Warring, A.E. et al. (2017). Doing pasts: Authenticity from the reenactors’ perspective. Rethinking History, 21(1), 171-192.
This article investigates how authenticity is construed and negotiated in four different fields of reenactment practice in Denmark (Iron Age, Middle Age, World War II and Francis of Assisi). It first outlines some key theoretical positions within recent international academic debate on reenactment and living history. Taking the viewpoint of the reenactors themselves, the article explores and compares how they create, experience and negotiate authenticity in the very process of imitating and embodying pasts. It transpires that authenticity is articulated, construed and evaluated differently, according, inter alia, to whether the primarily purpose is to learn about the past or rather to learn from the past. For some reenactors, the attempt to get as close as possible to the past connects to an ideal of historical accuracy, a standard from which all replicas and performances are measured. Yet a pragmatic recognition that the past can never be recreated completely is constantly present. For other reenactors, the doing of pasts is a way of accessing experiences and values that are felt to have been lost in modernity. At the same time, however, it is all-important to them that the world they imitate is a past that actually existed and not a fictional universe.

Warring, A.E., & Jessen, T.S. (2019). Questing authenticity: Rethinking enlightenment and experience in living history. Nordisk museologi, 1, 25-38.
Living history is often construed as a symptom of a broader tendency in the heritage industry to align communication with emotional and multisensory ways of engaging with pasts, typically in contrast to the object-based museum. Living history, however, is nothing new. In this article, we will demonstrate that discourses of enlightenment and experience have been vital in discussions on living history long before the term experience economy was introduced. In order to do so, we look at the concept of authenticity and the various meanings of authenticity in three institutional settings at three different moments in time. As ethnographic studies of the multiplicity of authenticity in contemporary practices illustrate, authenticity offers an opportunity to explore not only how living history museums relate to society, but how they are perceived by the general public too. Perhaps the same is true if the concept is used on historical source materials?

Conference and seminar engagements

Achiam, M. (2019) Discussant at pre-conference event: Space for all, Space for Earth. Conference of Ecsite (European Network of Science Centres and Museums), Copenhagen, Denmark, 5.6.

Arruda, M., Haldrup, M., & Samson, K. (2020). Performing citizenship through design. In PDC '20: Proceedings of the 16th Participatory Design Conference 2020: Participation(s) Otherwise, 2, 59–62.
In the face of global protests and conflicts over spatial rights, this paper proposes another framework for participatory design. As participation necessitates the question of participation in, what and for whom, we wish to bring in perspectives from citizens studies in which citizenship is something to be claimed, enacted and performed, as a potential for decolonizing the universal claim of participation in “participatory design” and reflecting on role of the designer in current social struggles. Instead of creating neutral participatory spaces for democratic dialogue, we argue that thedesigner may recognize the productivity of affective relations. With examples from a deportation camp in Denmark and a seminar in marginalized spaces of São Paulo, we address to how designers and activists turn the gaze from making minority groups participate in design and instead work with embodied and mediatized perspectives and the ethics of affect in the design process.

Baggesen, R.H., & Johansen, M.G. (2019). Co-creating knowledge: Participatory practices and museum/university partnerships. MW19: Museums and the web conference, Boston, USA, 5.4.
Increasingly, museums are looking to other fields of practice in order to spark innovation, incorporating digital mindsets and design-thinking methods in their practices, and engaging in collaborations with communities, private enterprises, and university partners to develop new experiences. So what is to be gained from cross-institutional collaborations, and what lessons can be learned from an exemplary partnership project? This paper will share methods and insights from //getting online, a design-led exhibition experiment at ENIGMA Museum of Communication in Copenhagen. //getting online explores strategies for engaging users in the creation of a polyphonic narrative of Internet history, following the museum's mission to foster dialogue. Moreover, the project is part of the transdisciplinary research programme 'Our Museum,' focused on museum development and advancing academic understandings of the museum experience. In the framework of the research programme, the exhibition experiments are thus also an experiment in museum practice, applying design research methodology and museological knowledge to the curatorial process. By addressing objectives, approaches, reflections, and results from the perspectives of both embedded researcher and museum host, the paper will provide an inside view of the prospects and potentials of university/museum collaborations.

Baggesen, R.H. (2017). Trans-museology: Inspiring a musealising gaze on the everyday. Art and presence conference. University of Southern Denmark, 16.9.
Like their musealised counterparts, everyday objects are both material, aesthetic entities and also cultural signifiers, ‘nodes at which matter and meaning intersect’ (Daston 2004:16). Hence, the potential pleasures in experiencing and reflecting on cultural objects in the everyday could be harnessed as a matter of curatorial interest. This presentation traces a current trend for transcending the museum setting to engage with everyday culture, and suggests that the notion of the ‘museum gaze’ could be reconceptualised as a musealising gaze on the everyday. Discussing illustrative examples, the paper will explore how museums may work strategically to augment this experience.

Bisgaard, L. (2018). Nordic museum histories: Closing remarks and reflections. Our museum-Conference, Nordic museum histories, University of Southern Denmark, 31.1.

Christensen, H.D. (2016). Gendered art museums and gendered discourses on art: Some examples from Denmark. Oplæg ved seminaret Gender and diversity in the art museum, University of Bergen, Norway, 24.11.

Christensen, H.D. (2016). Our Museum: How to initiate a large-scale research project. Medical Museion, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8.12.

Christensen, H.D. (2017). On casts: Looking for originals in a museum of copies. The art and science of replication, National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, 17.4.

Christensen, H.D. (2018). To animate the past for the benefit of the present: Response to and reflections on Mattias Bäckström’s lecture. Our Museum conference Nordic museum histories, Universiy of Southern Denmark, 31.1.

Christensen. H.D. (2018). Critical theory, digital technologies and collection management. CulCop Summer Seminar. University of Oslo, Norway, 19.6.

Christensen. H.D. (2018). Museum: A culture of digital copies. Organizer and speaker, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 15.11.

Christensen. H.D. (2018). The upside-down museum: Gendered art museums, gendered art museum communication, and gendered discourses on art. How men use museums, Aarhus University, Denmark, 18.12.

Drotner, K. (2016). The connected museum: Defining cultural collaboration across hybrid spaces. Keynote address, The spaces of public exhibition: A colloquium. Ulysses Centre, Dublin, Ireland, 4.3.

Drotner, K. (2016). Digital natives? Myths and realities of a much tooted concept. Keynote address, Nordic Youth Research Symposium, Trollhättan, Sweden, 17.6.

Drotner, K. (2017). Engaging audience and visitor studies for museum research, Panel leader, Audience studies working group, NordMedia-konference 2017, Tampere, Finland, 18.8.

Drotner, K. (2017). Children’s freedom of speech in the 21st century: Options and obstacles. Keynote address, Literacy and citizenship in the digital age conference, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 9.10.

Drotner, K. (2018). Media as means and ends of sustainability. Keynote address, Media as public good and a lever of sustainability conference, Wrocław University, Poland, 12.12.

Drotner, K. (2019). Already on: Knowledge skepticism and media and information literacy. Keynote address at The Academia Europaea and the Wenner-Gren Foundations International Symposium Mind the Gap: Bridging Secondary and Higher Education, Stockholm, Sweden, 15.-18.5.

Drotner, K. (2019). Mind the gap: Fostering inclusion by focusing on communication. Audio-visual communication section, ICOM 2019, Kyoto, Japan, 1.-7.9.
In order to foster inclusion and minimize divides, museums need to examine visitors’ digital engagements as communicative practices of social use rather than as issues of technological access or user preferences. Scholars and practitioners should include insights from recent research in media and communication studies documenting that 1) digital and other divides are correlated and related to differentials in usage; 2) people use digital technologies as means of communicating about the world. My documentation draws on 13 projects in a national R&D programme, Our Museum.

Drotner, K. (2019). Critical audience studies: A hidden tradition of innovation in museology. In: K. Smeds (red.), The future of tradition in museology: ICOFOM 42nd symposium proceedings, ICOM 2019, Kyoto, Japan, 1.-7.9.
Modern museums have always taken an interest in people who come to the museum – or who decline its offers. This paper addresses how museology has responded to this interest in users. More specifically, I claim that in order to develop robust and relevant analyses of museum users in the 21st century we need to draw much more than before on the theoretical tradition of critical and contextualized audience studies that emanates from media and communication research.

Drotner, K. (2019). Citizen science and communication: The missing link. Citizen-science symposium, Session: Citizen engagement and communication in citizen science. University of Southern Denmark, 7.10.

Drotner, K. (2019). Panelist, Future citizen-science projects: Options and obstacles, Citizen-science symposium, University of Southern Denmark, 7.10.

Drotner, K. (2019). Making sense of sensemaking: Creative learning in semi-formal settings. Keynote address at the International conference of the Leibniz research network on museums as informal learning environments, Berlin, Germany, 18.-19.12.

Drotner, K. (2020). Theories on citizen-science communication. International MA talent programme in citizen science, University of Southern Denmark, 28.2.

Drotner, K. (2020). Resourcing social sciences and humanities for sustainable research: What is at stake? What are the options? Opening keynote. HSSH research day: New research culture, University of Helsinki, Finland, 9.11. Online.

Drotner, K. (2020). Advancing cultural citizenship through co-creation and evaluation. Digital museum: How can audience experiences be enhanced with virtual technologies? Roundtable, Institut Français du Danemark, 12.11. Online.

Drotner, K. (2020). Beyond inclusion: Pathways to cultural citizenship in museums. MuseumDigit 2020 conference, Budapest, Hungary, 26.-27.11. Online.

Gommesen, N. (2020). Models of citizen science communication and The Sound of Denmark. International MA talent programme in citizen science, University of Southern Denmark, 28.4.

Grambye, V.H. (2017). The sacred on display: The clergy as antiquarians. Paper at Spring school 2017: From the sanctuary to the museum. University of Helsinki, Finland, 21.3.

Grambye, V.H. (2017). The antiquarian dynasty of the Bircherodes (1670-1730). Conference paper at konferencen Stobaeus cabinet of curiosity: Emotions, “curiosa” and collecting in Early Modern Sweden and beyond. Lund University, Sweden, 5.10.

Grambye, V.H. (2017). Early modern collecting in Scandinavia: The collecting of the Bircherod dynasty (1670-1730). History of Science working group workshop, European University Institute, Italy, 22.11.

Grambye, V.H. (2018). The first century of Nordic museologies: Response and reflections to Matthias Ekman’s keynote lecture. Vores museum-konference Nordic museum histories, University of Southern Denmark, 31.1.

Grambye, V.H. (2018). Collecting and mediating antiquities in 17th and 18th century Denmark: Examples of mediation methods in the premodern museum. Personal motivations in European museum making from the Renaissance to the Age of the Enlightenment conference, Aarhus University, Denmark, 22.11.

Haldrup. M. (2018). Futurability: Speculations on time, design and performance. Professorial inauguration lecture, Roskilde University, Denmark, 20.4.

Haldrup. M. (2018). Innovative thinking and museums. Keynote address, Röddik-träff, Linköping, Sweden, 5.12.

Haldrup. M. (2018). Introduction, Speculative scenographics seminar, Roskilde University, Denmark, 13.12.

Jakobsen, L.S. (2018). 3D printing in current museum dissemination. Museum: A culture of digital copies conference, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 16.11.

Jensen, S.K. (2017). Negotiating a Danish museum profession: Construction or deconstruction, 1958-2012. RC52 Interim Meting. International Sociological Association, Oslo, Norway, 8.-10.6.

Jensen, S.K. (2018). Profession or occupation? Response to and reflections on Peter van Mensch’s lecture. Our Museum conference, Nordic museum histories, University of Southern Denmark, 31.1.

Jensen, S.K. (2018). Development or demise? Professional museum work since the 1950s. Presentation, Museum Studies, University of San Francisco, USA, 24.4.

Jensen, S.K. (2018). Vision, administration and renegotiation: The professionalization of Danish museums since 1958. 10th International Conference on Cultural Policy Research, Tallin, Estonia, 22.-24.8.

Jensen, S.K. (2018). Culture, nature and art: The development and demise of professional borders within the Danish museum field from the 1950s until today. Var går gränsen: Utmaninger i nordisk museology. Nordic Museum Association, Helsinki, Finland, 30.8. and 1.9.

Jensen, S.K. (2018). What a curator needs to know: The development of Danish museum jobs and the skills needed from 1964-2016. Facing the new political realities: Rethinking training for regional museums. ICR/ICTOP, Auckland, Welllington, New Zealand, 5.-9.11.

Jessen, T.S. (2017). Evoking pasts? 100 years of living history. Presentation, The Our museum international scientific advisory board, Planetarium, Copenhagen, Denmark, 17.5.

Jessen, T.S. (2017). Past uses of pasts: 100 years of living history in Danish museums. Presentation, 4th Annual Conference, International Federation for Public History, Ravenna, Italy, 5.6.
While an increasing number of volunteers and visitors enact activities of selected pasts, the phenomenon of living history has in large been ignored by Danish academe. Through analysis of selected practices, this paper investigates the phenomenon of living history in Danish museums from the establishment of a new kind of ‘folk’ museum in 1897 till the present. I argue that living history from the onset has been more collaborative and inclusive than conventional ways of exhibiting pasts and that a more adequate understanding of the epistemological claims of living history requires that more attention is paid not only to living history per se, but also to how the specific assemblages of objects, identities, collective memories, bodies, settings etc. work and have worked in the past. By establishing a long-term perspective, we might successfully bridge empirical and theoretical approaches to living history promoting the potentials of these specific engagements with the public.

Jessen, T.S. (2019). Present pasts: Performing publics at living history museums. Presentation, Third Annual Memory Studies Association Conference, Madrid, Spain, 26.6.
Today, the use of living history is an integrated part of the many ways in which historical museums interact with visitors and society at large. While existing research has done much to address, audit and engage with the cultural implications of contemporary living history, less is known about how living history used to work, i.e. how living history over time has been bound up in public remembrance and memorialisation. Through analysis of selected practices in Denmark throughout the 20th century, this paper investigates just that. Often performing everyday life in recent pasts, I argue that living history from the onset has been more collaborative, inclusive and emotional engaging than conventional ways of exhibiting pasts. By establishing a long-term perspective on living history, we might successfully bridge empirical and theoretical approaches to the political and cultural work done by living history museums. As such, the long-term perspective further allows for a preliminary investigation into how we might extend the horizon of present memory studies to include productions of memories in the past.

Krishnasamy, R.K., & Khan, S. (2018). Design challenges in promoting inclusion for cultural heritage contents through low cost technology. In NordDesign 2018: Design in the era of digitalization. Linköping University, Sweden.

Krishnasamy, R.K., & Khan, S. (2018). Mixed reality game using Bluetooth beacons for exhibitions. Electronic Visualisation and the Arts, Association for Computing Machinery 2018.

Krishnasamy, R.K. (2018). Integrating smart objects into self-guided exhibitions: Challenges of supporting self-guided exhibitions through non-idiomatic technologies. Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Interacting with Smart Objects. Bd. 2082 Association for Computing Machinery, 3, 17-22.
This position paper presents key challenges that have been identified in the early stages of designing interactive digital, self-guided, exhibition sites through the use of low-cost context aware technologies. The next wave of smart technologies, such as context aware objects and devices, enable new opportunities for facilitating self-guided exhibitions through digital experience layers. However, these technologies often fail to gain traction when the user does not understand how to operate or interact with these systems, due to new or unfamiliar interaction modes. The purpose of this paper is to present work-in-progress of implementing two app prototypes: 1) a mixed reality game for smartphones and 2) a digital guide, that uses Bluetooth beacons at a fully automated exhibition in Northern Denmark. Two of key challenges that this research projects revolves around is how to on-board new users and how to transfer experiential knowledge from other systems that the user is familiar with to a system that is unknown to the user. Through an iterative design process, two prototypes are being developed to investigate these challenges.

Krishnasamy, R.K. (2019). Designing digital exploration games for automated exhibition sites. Academic Bookshop Proceedings Series
This paper presents a mixed-reality, location-based game for mobile devices, Discover the Redoubt, designed to support users in an automated, self-facilitated exhibition site-that is, a site where there are no personnel present, free admission, monitored through security cameras and time-locks to open/close the building. The game has been designed to accommodate an exhibition that has a combination of indoor and outdoor areas by utilizing Bluetooth beacons. The game is designed to investigate how museum communication can be mediated through an equilibration of ‘fun’ and ‘facts’ in an automated exhibition. Exhibition sites are widely regarded by scholars from multiple disciplines as environments where informal learning can take place and link educative and entertaining content. However, the challenge of balancing education and entertainment remains a debated topic in museum research. Users’ expectations are often tempered by traditional museum communication that is reflected in exhibition design that uses glass displays with labels, signage, posters and looping audio and video content. Existing games in exhibitions, such as scavenger hunts and quizzes, provide a way of playing through an exhibition visit, which can support the users in a self-facilitated visit while providing active and interactive modus for the user. However, the design of these games is relatively unexplored, when factoring in automation and self-facilitation. The design process here details user research, lab and field test which entails co-design with museum professionals and studying visitors in the exhibition. The aim is to support the user in automated sites by enabling exploratory behaviour through the gameplay.

Krishnasamy, R.K. (2019). Towards game-guided exploration systems for self-facilitated exhibitions. Electronic Visualisation and the Arts, 164–171.
Automated exhibition sites require facilitation and mediation beyond signage and text labels to guide and sustain user engagement throughout the visit. Museums and cultural heritage sites have a rich history of experimenting with games and playful experiences to enable curiosity and motivate users to explore and engage with the exhibition content, yet the challenge of selffacilitation in automated sites brings unexplored areas into both existing research and practices. Rapid technological advancements have further developed the digital frontier, placing context aware, mixed reality applications and game systems in the hands of a growing number of users. This offers a renewed interest in investigating facilitation in automated sites mediated through games that utilise emerging technologies. However, this optimistic view is tempered by our limited understanding of how to design exhibition games to support the user in self-facilitated situations. This paper introduces the Game-Guided Exploration Systems framework as a way to think and talk about games and playful experiences for facilitation and mediation in automated exhibitions. The framework is based on gaming schemas extracted from game literature (rules, play and context) supported by perspectives on facilitation and mediation. The paper illustrates this framework, which is derived from investigating existing game systems, theory and through the development of a game system designed to support self-facilitation through play and exploration.

Larsen, A.H., & Jakobsen. L.S. (2018). Disciplinary borders within museology. Presentation, Where are the borders? Challenges in Nordic museology conference, Helsinki, Finland, 30.8.

Madsen, K.H. (2018). The making of nations and museums. Response to and reflections on Peter Aronsson’s keynote lecture. The Our Museum conference, Nordic museum histories, University of Southern Denmark, 31.01.

Madsen, K.M., & Krishnasamy, R.K. (2019). Our Museum game: A collaborative game for user-centered exhibition design. ArtsIT 2019: Interactivity and game creation. 8th EAI International Conference: ArtsIT, Interactivity & Game Creation.
The 'Our Museum' board game (referred to as 'the game' throughout this paper) is a dialogical tool for museum professionals, researchers, exhibition designers and devel-opers. The game is designed and developed through a coordinated effort between mu-seum professionals and researchers. The work presented here will detail the conception of the game and establish parts of the theoretical background for the game design, offset by two iterations that are based on insights from two separate playtests. These insights have been reworked and implemented into the current version of the game. With the game, we aim to offer a tool-supported method to tackle user-centered chal-lenges in the exhibition space, by bringing different roles together and provide a me-dium to form a shared language as a part of the design process of creating exhibitions. The work here could be interesting to both practitioners as well as researchers working within the museum context and to an extent within the fields of games and gamification.

Madsen, K. M., & Vistisen, P. (2021). From ‘bugs’ to exploratory exhibition design: Transforming design flaws in users experiences. Nordic Design Research (NORDES).
In this paper we explore the potentials in observing how users creatively explore or hack an exhibition design and transform or scale these “abnormalities” in the users microninteractions into new explorative exhibition designs. Can we apply this notion of observing exploring user interactions and transform these microinteraction into drivers for user experience based on strategies of emergent gameplay? If we acknowledge these findings from the design process as potential enablers of superior user experiences for the end-user, and not simply as ‘bugs’ and ‘anomalies’ to be avoided or ‘patched’, there is a potential for scaling, transferring, and transforming new insights into new design potentials. To this end, observing hacking and creative play in user interactions might lead to a new understanding of user experiences and how unintended microinteractions can transform into foundation user experiences in an exhibition design.

Madsen, K.M. (2017). REDOing the museum exhibition design. Cumulus REDO Conference Proceedings, 690-695.

Myrczik, E., & Jakobsen, L.S. (2019). How men use museums: Understanding the statistic gender imbalance among users of cultural institutions. Presentation, Center of Museology, Aarhus University, Denmark, 25.10.

Myrczik, E. (2017). Different types of participatory practices and digital museum mediation. Presentation, Sociale rum og brugerinddragelse i udstillinger seminar, Den Gamle By, Aarhus, Denmark, 28.11.

Myrczik, E. (2018). From paradigm to practice. Presentation, Mission: Participation seminar. Department of Information Studies, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 6.2.

Myrczik, E. (2018). The construction of the digital: A fragmented exploration. Presentation, Lisbon Consortium Summer School for the Study of Culture, Portugal, 4.7.

Myrczik, E. (2019). Museums and AI. Presentation, LAMC3: Questions of collections in the age of digitalization seminar, Uppsala University, Finland, 8.10.

Myrczik, E. (2021). When the robots came in: What artificial intelligence can tell us about museums and what museums should tell us about artificial intelligence. RISE: International Conference on Emerging Technologies and the Digital Transformation of Museums and Heritage Sites, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Nicolaisen, L. & Achiam, M. (2017). Who is the implied visitor in astronomy exhibitions? ESERA (European Science Education Research Association) conference, Dublin, Ireland, 21.-25.8.
Planetariums disseminate astrophysics, space technology and planetary science to the public. These subject areas are often perceived as being ‘hard science’ and thus symbolically associated with the masculine. To what extent is this gendering also present within planetarium exhibitions? We address this question with a three-fold conceptual framework combining theories on the implied visitor, gender, and science exhibitions, respectively. We analyse to what extent gendered structures are embodied within the exhibition Space Mission. We find that the dominant discourse within the exhibition is one that presents science as technical, fact-based, and individualist, organised through competitive and game-like activities. We argue that these characteristics are associated with masculinity, thereby reproducing the discourse of astrophysics as being within the masculine domain and potentially excluding a large diversity of visitors. We offer some hypotheses about the origin of this gendering and discuss its implications.

Nicolaisen, L. (2019). Made in Space: Designing an inclusive exhibition. Invited speaker, Space Group preconference. Conference of Ecsite (European Network of Science Centres and Museums), Copenhagen, Denmark, 5.6.

Nicolaisen, L. (2019). Presentation at Scientist Talk: Conjectures of the implied visitor. Conference of ESERA (European Science Education Research Association), Bologna, Italy, 28.8.

Særkjær, C. (2018). When is it participatory? An investigation of collection and user engagement experiments at Randers Art Gallery. Presentation, A participatory museology seminar, School of Fine Art, History of Art and Cultural Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom, 25.6.

Vistisen, P., Østergaard, C.P. & Krishnasamy, R.K. (2017). Adopting the unknown through the known: Supporting user interaction of non-idiomatic technologies in exhibitions through known idioms of conventional technologies. In L. di Lucchio, L. Imbesi & P. Atkinson (eds.). Design for Next: Proceedings of the 12th European Academy of Design Conference. The Design Journal, 20 (sup1), S3696-S3706.
When designing for the next wave of technologies, a challenge is how to culturally appropriate the semantic idioms of new technology to users with little experiential knowledge about the technology. This is especially a challenge, when more and more attractions are becoming unmanned, with little possibility for guidance. In this paper, we hypothesise that non-idiomatic technologies can be supported by leveraging existing idiomatic knowledge on more conventional technologies and thus lower the participation barrier. In two cases collected with several Danish attractions we experimented with supporting design with traditional technology, such as video signs, social media and physical signs to assess how idiomatic formats could facilitate the use of the non-idiomatic technology. We contribute with a set of lessons learned for how non-idiomatic design situations can be facilitated through using the users existing knowledge with more conventional technological practices.

Warring, A.E. (2018). Introduction to Nordic museum histories. The Our Museum conference, Nordic museum histories, University of Southern Denmark, 31.1.

Warring, A.E. (2018). Cradle of the nation: The heritage and politics of Kongernes Jelling and Lejre. Presentation, University of Bergen, Norway, 17.12.

Yates, M.F. (2017). New visitors and old art. Presentation, Department of Art History, UC Berkeley, USA.

Yates, M.F. (2019) Current issues in visitor studies. Seminar presenation, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Popular communication

The Our museum film.

Baggesen, R.H. (2016). Participatory and professional interchange in digital museum practice. Blogpost.

Baggesen, R.H. (2018). Designing ‘The explorative exhibition’. Blogpost, 25.4.

Baggesen, R.H. (2018). Exploring new museum practices through design. Blogpost, 15.5.

Baggesen, R.H. (2018). Initial explorations. Blogpost, 6.7.

Nicolaisen, L., & Ibsen, T. (2018). Hypatia goes to outer space: Creating an exhibition about the spectacular origins of humankind. Hypatia Project nyhedsbrev, 24.01.

Exhibitions, tools and events

Madsen, K.M., & Krishnasamy, R. (2018). The Our Museum Game. Board game to develop innovative museum communication.

Vistisen, P. (producer), Selvadurai, V. (producer), Krishnasamy, R.K. (producer), & Smed, S.G. (producer) (2018). Aratag: Give your visitors a digital experience. Computer programme.

Vistisen, P. (producer), Selvadurai, V. (producer), & Krishnasamy, R.K. (producer) (2018). Big Ocean Window: BOW. Computer programme.

Baggesen, R.H. (2018). //da internettet kom til dig [When the internet came to you]. Exhibition Enigma Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark. From 1.12.

Baggesen, R.H. (2019). Sammen om skærmen [Together on screen] Conversation tool for families on internet usage.

Baggesen, R.H. (2019). RAM – Random Access Memory. Board game on internet memories.

Krishnasamy, R.K. (2019). Opdag Skansen [Explore Skansen]. Exhibition, Nordjylland History Museum, Hals, 11.19.

Madsen, K.M. (2018). Den fantastiske ål [The fantastic eel]. Exhibition, Limfjord Museum, Løgstør, Denmark. From 15.6.

Madsen, K.M. (2019). Den fantastiske fjord [The fantastic fiord]. Exhibition, Limfjord Museum, Løgstør, Denmark. From 15.6.

Nicolaisen, L.B. (2018). Made in Space. Exhibition, Planetarium, Copenhagen, Denmark. Collaborators: White Noise Agency (Copenhagen) and 59productions (London). From 2.2.

Nicolaisen, L.B. (2018). Made in Space exhibition winner of the Mariano Gago Sustainable Succes Award ved Ecsite Annual Conference 2018, Genèva, 6.6.

Særkjær, C. (2017). Udstillingen Kunst i kassen [Art in the box]. Exhibition and events, Randers Art Museum, Denmark, 12.-19.8.

Særkjær, C. (2020). Kunst i kassen 2.0 [Art in the box 2.0]. Exhibition and events, RandersArt Museum, Denmark, 12.1.-1.4.

Yates, M.F. (2018). Familietid på Skovgaard Museet [Family time at the Skovgaard Museum]. Public event, The Skovgaard Museum, Viborg, Denmark, 22.4.

Yates, M.F. (2018). Humle, håndværk og historier [Hops, handicraft and histories]. Public event, The Skovgaard Museum, Viborg, Denmark, 5.6. and 15.6.

Yates, M.F. (2018). Midt i en krigstid [War-time focus]. Digital sound installation, The Skovgaard Museum, Viborg, Denmark, June-July.